June 1919

14 - 15 June

Communist leaflets speaking out against the government are distributed in Weimar. [PK]

16 June

The Allies give the German government an ultimatum to accept the Versailles peace treaty. [EK]

17 - 18 June

In Weimar Sergeant Schwärtz frees approximately 60 military prisoners on his own and exchanges fire with the National Assembly protection forces. [PK]

20 June

Government crisis as DDP ministers and Reichsministerpräsident Scheidemann (SPD) refuse to sign the peace treaty. Scheidemann’s cabinet steps down. [EK]

21 June

Gustav Bauer (SPD) becomes new Reichsministerpräsident, Hermann Müller (SPD) Reichsminister des Auswärtigen (Foreign Affairs), Erzberger (Center) Reichsminister der Finanzen (Finance), Eduard David (SPD) Reichsminister des Innern (Interior), Wilhelm Mayer (Center) Reichsschatzminister (Treasury), Rudolf Wissell (SPD) Reichswirtschaftsminister (Economic Affairs), Robert Schmidt (SPD) Reichsernährungsminister (Food), Gustav Noske (SPD) Reichswehrminister (Defence), Alexander Schlicke (SPD) Reichsarbeitsminister (Labor), Johann Giesberts (Center) Reichspostminister (Post), Johannes Bell (Center) Reichsminister für Verkehrswesen (Transport), Under-Secretary Heinrich Delbrück (SPD) Reichsjustizminister (acting Justice Minister). [EK; DNV, Vol. 3, p. 408]

22 June

The fortieth session of the National Assembly, from 12:19 to 4:22pm The new government’s statement: Denunciation and protest against the Treaty of Versailles, but also call to all parliamentary groups to verify the facts in great earnest instead of pursuing party tactics. Refusal to recognize Articles 227 to 230 (extradition of war criminals, including former Kaiser Wilhelm II) as well as Article 231 (Germany and its allies are declared guilty for the war). After debate - consenting responses from the SPD, the USPD, and the Center Party; rejection from the DDP, the DVP and the DNVP - the Allies’ peace conditions are approved with 237 votes in favour out of a total 381 votes cast (138 votes against, 5 abstentions and 1 invalid vote). The National Assembly furthermore expresses its confidence in the new government (235 votes in favour, 89 against, 69 abstentions and one invalid vote of 394 total votes cast). [DNV, Vol. 3, pp. 406-459]

Leaflets are dropped around the city of Weimar in protest against the signing of the Treaty of Versailles. [PK]

23 June

The forty-first session of the National Assembly, from 2:56pm to 3:15pm and 4:35 to 5:41pm
Reichministerpräsident Bauer (SPD) reads out the response of the Entente in which the latter rejects the National Assembly’s conditional approval of the peace treaty from the previous day as insufficient and demands an unconditional approval without reservation within 24 hours. The Bauer cabinet is in favour of signing unconditionally and calls for a vote on this: a large majority of Members are in favour; session is then suspended. 
A “call to the German army” is read out in which the National Assembly expresses its thanks “for great sacrifices for the defence of the homeland” and asks the army for loyalty.
Deliberation and unanimous approval of the "Bill concerning the amendment of the Act on Tax Evasion of 26 July 1918". Deliberations and approval of the “Bill concerning the further provisional arrangements regarding the national budget and the budget for the Schutzgebiete for the financial year 1919”. Deliberation and unanimous approval of the “Bill concerning the accession of the Free States of Bavaria and Baden to the Beer Tax Community”. [DNV, Vol. 3, pp. 460-472]

24 June

The forty-second session of the National Assembly, from 10:24am to 11:10am
Government representatives answer various questions: Lack of registration forms for leather merchants in Bavaria; increase in housing allowance funds for border guards in Saxony; price calculation of cow hides; too little family support available for war veterans i.a.
Deliberations and unanimous approval of the “Bill concerning the regional health insurance funds, insurance fund employees and auxiliary health insurance funds (i.a. promoting equality for the agricultural workforce). [DNV, Vol. 3, pp. 474-481]

28 June

The peace treaty is signed by the Entente and the German government in Versailles by Foreign Minister Hermann Müller (SPD) and Transport Minister Johannes Bell (Center Party).

Protest rally against the signing of the peace treaty takes place in Weimar’s market square. [EK; PK]

30 June – 5 July

Tenth Congress of the Free Trade Unions in Nuremberg; the Federation of German General Trade Unions (ADGB) is founded. [UB]

Show glossary

Glossar

Abkürzungs- und Siglenverzeichnis der verwendeten Literatur:

ADGBFederation of German General Trade Unions
AEGGeneral Electricity Company
AfA-BundGeneral Free Federation of Employees
AGCorporation
AVUSAutomobile Traffic and Training Road
BMWBavarian Motor Works
BRTgross register tons
BVPBavarian People’s Party
CenterCenter Party
DAPGerman Workers’ Party
DDPGerman Democratic Party
DNTGerman National Theater
DNVPGerman National People’s Party
DVPGerman People’s Party
GmbHLimited (form of company)
KominternCommunist International
KPDCommunist Party of Germany
KVPConservative People’s Party
LKWtrucks
MSPDMajority Social Democratic Party of Germany; the Majority Socialists
NSnational socialism (Nazi)
NSDAPNational Socialist German Workers’ Party; Nazi party
NVNational Assembly
O.C.Organization Consul
OHLArmy High Command
RMReichsmark
SASturmabteilung; Brownshirts
SPDSocial Democratic Party of Germany
SSSchutzstaffel
StGBPenal Code
UfAUniversum Film Aktiengesellschaft
USPDIndependent Social Democratic Party of Germany
VKPDUnited Communist Party of Germany
ZentrumCenter Party
[AB]August Baudert: Sachsen-Weimars Ende. Historische Tatsachen aus sturmbewegter Zeit, Weimar 1923.
[AS]Axel Schildt: Die Republik von Weimar. Deutschland zwischen Kaiserreich und „Drittem Reich“ (1918-1933), hrsg. von der Landeszentrale für politische Bildung Thüringen, Erfurt 2009.
[BauerBauer, Kurt, Nationalsozialismus. Ursprünge, Anfänge, Aufstieg und Fall, u.a. Wien 2008.
[BihlBihl, Wolfdieter, Der Erste Weltkrieg 1914 - 1918. Chronik - Daten - Fakten, Wien 2010.
[BüttnerBüttner, Ursula, Weimar. Die überforderte Republik 1918-1933, Stuttgart 2008.
[DNV]Die Deutsche Nationalversammlung im Jahre 1919 in ihrer Arbeit für den Aufbau des neuen deutschen Volksstaates, hrsg. v. Ed.[uard] Heilfron, Bd. 1 bis 6, Berlin [1919].
[Ebert/Wienecke-JanzEbert, Johannes/Wienecke-Janz, Detlef, Die Chronik. Geschichte des 20. Jahrhunderts bis heute, Gütersloh/München 2006.
[EK]Eberhard Kolb: Die Weimarer Republik, 3. überarb. u. erw. Aufl., München 1993.
[EtzoldEtzold, Hans-Rüdiger, Der Käfer II. Die Käfer-Entwicklung von 1934 bis 1982 vom Urmodell zum Weltmeister, Stuttgart 1989.
[GG]Gitta Günther: Weimar-Chronik. Stadtgeschichte in Daten. Dritte Folge: März 1850 bis April 1945 (Weimarer Schriften, Heft 33), Weimar 1987.
[GrüttnerGrüttner, Michael, Das Dritte Reich 1933-1945 (= Bd. 19, Gebhardt. Handbuch der deutschen Geschichte), Stuttgart 2014.
[HildebrandHildebrand, Klaus, Das Dritte Reich, 7. Aufl., München 2010.
[Kessler Tgbb]Harry Graf Kessler. Tagebücher 1918-1937, hrsg. von Wolfgang Pfeiffer-Belli, Frankfurt a. M und Leipzig 1996.
[KittelKittel, Erich, Novembersturz 1918. Bemerkungen zu einer vergleichenden Revolutionsgeschichte der deutschen Länder, in: Blätter für deutsche Landesgeschichte 104 (1968), S. 42-108.
[KolbKolb, Eberhard, Die Weimarer Republik, 7. durchges. und erw. Aufl., München 2010.
[NiedhartNiedhart, Gottfried, Die Außenpolitik der Weimarer Republik, 2. aktualisierte Aufl., München 2010.
[O/S]Manfred Overesch/ Friedrich Wilhelm Saal: Die Weimarer Republik. Eine Tageschronik der Politik, Wirtschaft, Kultur, Düsseldorf 1992.
[Overesch/SaalOveresch, Manfred/Saal, Friedrich Wilhelm, Die Weimarer Republik, Eine Tageschronik der Politik, Wissenschaft Kultur, Augsburg 1992.
[PeukertPeukert, Detlef, Die Weimarer Republik. Krisenjahre der Klassischen Moderne, Frankfurt a.M. 1987.
[PK]Paul Kaiser: Die Nationalversammlung 1919 und die Stadt Weimar (Weimarer Schriften, Heft 16), Weimar 1969.
[PM]Paul Messner: Das Deutsche Nationaltheater Weimar. Ein Abriß seiner Geschichte. Von den Anfängen bis Februar 1945 (Weimarer Schriften, Heft 17), Weimar 1985.
[ThHB]Thüringen-Handbuch. Territorium, Verfassung, Parlament, Regierung und Verwaltung in Thüringen 1920 bis 1995, hrsg. von Bernhard Post und Volker Wahl, Redaktion Dieter Marek (Veröffentlichungen aus Thüringischen Staatsarchiven, Bd. 1), Weimar 1999.
[TofahrnTofahrn, Klaus W., Chronologie des Dritten Reiches. Ereignisse, Personen, Begriffe, Darmstadt 2003.
[UB]Ursula Büttner: Weimar. Die überforderte Republik 1918-1933. Leistungen und Versagen in Staat, Gesellschaft, Wirtschaft und Kultur, Stuttgart 2008.
[VU]Volker Ullrich: Die Revolution von 1918/19, München 2009.
[WinklerWinkler, Heinrich-August, Weimar 1918-1933. Die Geschichte der Ersten deutschen Demokratie, München 1993.
[WirschingWirsching, Andreas, Die Weimarer Republik. Politik und Gesellschaft, 2. erw. Aufl., München 2010.

(zusammengestellt von Dr. Jens Riederer und Christine Rost, bearbeitet von Stephan Zänker)

Unsere Website benutzt Cookies. Durch die weitere Nutzung unserer Inhalte stimmen Sie der Verwendung zu. Akzeptieren Weitere Informationen